The fourth industrial revolution is described as the application of the internet to the industry in the management of the products, using digitalization and information technology and communication (ITC) and intelligent devises, connected to networks, communication machines, adapting services to clients in every part of the world and applying artificial intelligence to goods and services.


  • Carlos Ayala Montero


Workers TIC, infoplazas, internet


Fecha de recepción, febrero 2020

Fecha de aprobación, agosto 2020

Páginas: 4

As for the use of effective advance technology in production, according to, internet availability in infoplaza at the national level equipped with computers with access of internet at school and the implementation of the electronic government electronic, have allow Panama to move forward in the use of new technology at the Latin American level in the last years.


The level of inequality within the countries could increase the creation of a group of workers with increase capacity to adapt to technological change and to the new employees on one hand, and a large group of workers unable to do so, as happened a few decades ago with the privatization of state-owned enterprises.


In order to survive, these workers will find new way to generate income, which will occur in the informal field, but the informality also affect the system, due to unfair competition. Formal enterprise cannot compete with those that dodge cost, such as social security vacations and others, on the other hand, informality implies the disability to be credit subject because of lack of labor stability (long term safe income in order to pay credit commitments), which drastically reduce the operation of the system and therefore the consumption. It is therefore better for the system to maintain the majority of the workers within the framework of formal employment relationship.


Author Biography

Carlos Ayala Montero

Doctor en Derecho del Trabajo; Profesor Universitario. Presidente de la Comisión de Asuntos Académicos  y Ex Presidente de la Academia Panameña de derecho del Trabajo. Director del Instituto de Estudios del Trabajo de la Universidad Especializada de las Américas (UDELAS).